INFUSING DALCROZE EURHYTHMICS IN IMPROVING SINGING SKILLS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
Keywords:Dalcroze Eurhythmics, singing, movement, music education, quasi-experimental
Singing is one of the main music activities in Malaysian primary music education. It is believed that singing makes a class fun and it is closely related to students. As singing comprises vocal elements such as pitching, tempo, rhythm and expression, students are taught to master all the elements in producing a pleasant song. Nonetheless, the current teaching method does not meet the high level of singing skill among students where all the students scored C Grade (satisfactory) in the preliminary test conducted. Thus, researchers introduced Dalcroze Eurhythmics approach to intervene in the problem, creating a fun music class and further improving students' singing musicality. The ideas of the approach are found to be related to time, space and energy to mold students’ comprehension to the concept of tempo, meter and rhythm, further applying in their singing skill. The combination of rhythmic and solfege activities with the accompaniment of percussion enables students to master all the vocal elements in a fun learning environment. This study has patently found the increment of students' result from pre-test to post-test based on quantitative analysis by comparing two groups of students learning in different teaching environments. The strengths and significance of Dalcroze Eurhythmics approach is further discussed with some recommendations for the future studies.
Anuar, A.F., Paramasivam, S., Ismail, M.J. (2020): Malay-english code-mixing insertion: why ‘lepaking’ in preference to ‘hanging out’? – Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 1(5): 69-84.
Bachmann, M.L. (1993): Dalcroze today: An education through and into music. – Oxford: Oxford University Press 392p.
Campbell, P., Scott-Kassner, C. (2013): Music in childhood: Dari preschool through the elementary grades. – Boston: Nelson Education 398p.
Crumpler, S.E. (1982): The Effect of Dalcroze Eurhythmics on the Melodic Musical Growth of First Grade Students. – Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College 155p.
Dalcroze, E.J. (1945): La musique et nous. Note sur notre double vie. – Genève: Perret-Gentil 287p.
Daley, C. (2013): Moved to Learn: Dalcroze Applications to Choral Pedagogy and Practice. – University of Toronto 249p.
Dennis, P.C.W. (2008): The Quantifying Analysis of Effectiveness of Music Learning Through The Dalcroze Musical Method. – US-China Education Review 5(9): 32-41.
D'Errico, F. (2018): Experiencing musical improvisation: The body, the mind, and the senses. – World Futures 74(3): 175-186.
Dutoit, C.L. (1971): Music movement therapy. – London: Dalcroze Society 98p.
Findlay, E. (1995): Rhythm and Movement: Applications of Dalcroze Eurhythmics. – Van Nuys: Alfred Music 96p.
Fisher, R. (2005): Teaching students to learn. – London: Nelson Thornes 175p.
Fox, D.B., Barden, C.H., Surmani, K.F., Kowalchyk, G., Lancaster, E.L. (2004): Alfred's classroom music for little Mozart: 10 sequential lessons for ages 4-6, Curriculum book 1. – New York: Alfred Music Publishing 136p.
Glover, J., Young, S. (2002): Music in the early years. – Abingdon: Routledge 188p.
Gould, H. (2015): Dalcroze Eurhythmics-An Introduction: A description of the basic principles of Dalcroze Eurhythmics. – International Documentation of Contemporary Dance Education. Available on:
Gould, A.O., Savage, E.J. (1972): Teaching students to sing. Iowa: Kendall Hunt 75p.
Hallam, S., Cross, I., Thaut, M. (2011): Oxford handbook of music psychology. – Oxford: Oxford University Press 585p.
Hayati, I. (2018). Pembelajaran abad ke-21: Harapan, realiti dan cabaran. – Utusan Online. Available on:
Ismail, M.J., Fung Chiat, L. (2018): Method of Using Eurhythmics Dalcroze Approach to Increase the Coordination of Singing and Playing Kompang Percussion Among Students. – Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH) 3(4): 119-128.
Ismail, M.J., Anuar, A.F., Kamis, M.S. (2020): Divergent thinking in musically gifted practices: A review. – Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 1(5): 13-26.
Johnson, M.D. (1993): Dalcroze Eurhythmics: Music for dancers. – Dance Magazine 67(11): 82-83.
Juntunen, M.L. (2016): The Dalcroze approach: Experiencing and knowing music through the embodied exploration. Approaches to teaching general music: Methods, Issues, and Viewpoints. – Oxford: Oxford University Press 376p.
Juntunen, M.L. (2004): Embodiment in Dalcroze eurhythmics. – University of Oulu 100p.
Juntunen, M.L. (2002): Practical applications of Dalcroze eurhythmics. – Nordic Research in Music Education Yearbook 6: 75-92.
Juntunen, M.L., Westerlund, H. (2001): Digging Dalcroze, or, Dissolving the Mind‐Body Dualism: Philosophical and practical remarks on the musical body in action. – Music Education Research 3(2): 203-214.
Kamis, M.S., Alias, M.N., Ishak, N.M., Ismail, M.J. (2019): The characteristics of the cognitively gifted learners: Guidelines for Malaysian teachers in teaching language. – International Journal of Education 4(29): 46-52.
Kamis, M.S., Lubis, M.A., Mohamad, N., Kasim, A.A.M., Ismail, M.J. (2018): A review of teaching reading arabic text: cultivating curiosity for gifted students in the classroom. – Asean Comparative Education Research Journal On Islam And Civilization (ACER-J) 2(2): 59-74.
Linkins, J.E. (2015): A Song from the Heart: The Pedagogical Philosophy of Lorna Lutz Heyge, Phd. – Bloomington: WestBow Press 110p.
Ludke, K.M. (2018): Singing and arts activities in support of foreign language learning: an exploratory study. – Innovation In Language Learning And Teaching 12(4): 371-386.
Manifold, H.L. (2008): Applying Jaques-Dalcrose’s Method to Teaching Musical Instruments And its Effect on the Learning Process. – Northeastern Illinois University. Available on:
Md Jais, I., Loo, F.C., Azu Farhana, A. (2021): Learning music through rhythmic movements in Malaysia. – Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction 18(1): 243-265.
Md Jais, I., Loo, F.C., Azu Farhana, A., Rorlinda, Y. (2020): Institutionalising the Kompang for Primary School Students in Malaysia. – International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change 13(5): 275-292.
Md Jais, I., Azu Farhana, A. (2020): The significance of music to gifted students. – Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 1(4): 33-43.
Md Jais I., Loo F.C., Mohd Sham K. (2019): Koordinasi Menyanyi Sambil Bermain Kompang Kanak-Kanak Menggunakan Pendekatan Euritmik. – Jurnal Penyelidikan Sains Sosial 2(5): 19-31.
Md Jais, B.I., Loo, F.C., Rorlinda, Y, Mohd Sham, B.K. (2018): Comparison of Dalcroze Eurhythmics Teaching Approach with Conventional Approach to Enhance Kompang Playing Skills among Malaysian Children. – SSRG International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (SSRG-IJHSS) 5(6): 64-69.
Md Jais, B.I. (2017): The effectiveness of dalcroze music approach in enhancing musical coordination skill among year 4 students in urban area. – Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH) 2(1): 54-65.
Mei-Ying L., Campbell, P.S. (2016): Teaching students’ songs: a Taiwan–US comparison of approaches by kindergarten teachers. – Music Education Research 18(1): 20-38.
Mei-Ying L., Davidson, J.W. (2016): Enhancing gesture quality in young singers. – Music Education Research 18(3): 283-294.
Merwe, V.D.L., Habron, J. (2019): The Dalcroze diamond: a theory of spiritual experiences in Dalcroze Eurhythmics. – Music Education Research 21(4): 426-440.
Pretorius, M., van der Merwe, L. (2019): Ritmik och kollektivt lärande: collective learning in a Swedish choir as a community of musical practice through Dalcroze-inspired activities. – Music Education Research 21(5): 582-595.
Rogers, C.M. (1970): Dalcroze eurhythmics. – Southern Journal of Communication 35(3): 225-236.
Rutkowski, J. (2013): The nature of students’ singing voices: Characteristics and assessment. – The Phenomenon of Singing 1: 201-209.
Swift, T. (2017): Learning Through Movement and Active Play in the Early Years: A Practical Resource for Professionals and Teachers. – London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers 192p.
Welch, G.F. (2005): Singing as communication. – Musical communication, Oxford: Oxford University Press 20p.
Wolbers, M. (2002): Singing in the band rehearsal. – Music Educators Journal 89(2): 37-41.
Wood, D. (1999): Move, Sing, Listen, Play (Revised): Preparing the Young Child for Music. – Van Nuys: Alfred Music 220p.
Young, K.T., Davis, K., Schoen, C., Parker, S. (1998): Listening to parents: a national survey of parents with young students. – Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 152(3): 255-262.
Zaharah, M.A. (2003): Dalcroze Eurhythmics Dalam Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran Pendidikan Muzik Tahap Satu Sekolah Rendah. – Universiti Sains Malaysia 183p.