• MD ASHRAFUZZAMAN Department of Anthropology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • MD SAYEDUR RAHMAN Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Begum Rokeya University, Ranpur, Bangladesh.




development, cultural hegemony, economic hegemony, dependency, geopolitical tool, neo-liberalism


The concept of ‘development’ is one that could be likened to running after a moving train. It is a concept that has been constructed in a particular history, culture and time, linked with industrialization, economic growth, and social transformations through economic, political and social re-arrangements creating a modern ‘state besides over the years the world has been confronted by a number of development challenges. Critical perspectives on development such as post-development, reject the idea of development as a universal necessity, as something desirable and a moral imperative, and as something that the Western world is entitled to bring about in other regions of the world. Post-development argues that the west proclaimed development as a universal and ahistorical process based on its own local experience. The starting point of this paper is the following question: What is the role of the notions of agency and power in the post-development Critique on the development discourse and Practices? Hence through review of the scholar's analysis this paper tries to reflect that development as a eurocentric myth, economic hegemony, economical dependency, legitimacy and power and geopolitical tool which is ruining the social system of development partitioner. Therefore, based on this background, this study will try to analyze the development process according to the power relations between the participants.


Agnew, J.A. (2005): Hegemony: The new shape of global power. – Temple University Press 288p.

Augelli, E., Enrico, A., Murphy, C. (1988): America's Quest for Supremacy and the Third World a Gramscian Analysis. – UNKNO 207p.

Azam, J.P., Thelen, V. (2008): The roles of foreign aid and education in the war on terror. – Public Choice 135(3-4): 375-397.

Adorno, T.W., Horkheimer, M. (1997): Dialectic of enlightenment. – Standford University Press 449p.

Baumeister, C., Kilian, L. (2016): Forty years of oil price fluctuations: Why the price of oil may still surprise us. – Journal of Economic Perspectives 30(1): 139-60.

Bodenheimer, S. (1971): Readings in US Imperialism. Dependency and Imperialism: The Roots of Latin American Underdevelopment. – Taylor and Francis 9p.

Bornschier, V. (1989): Legitimacy and comparative economic success at the core of the world system: an exploratory study. – European Sociological Review 5(3): 215-230.

Bourdieu, P., Passeron, J.C. (1990): Reproduction in education, society and culture. – Sage Publication 143p.

Burnside, A.C., Dollar, D. (2004): Aid, policies, and growth: revisiting the evidence. – Policies, and Growth: Revisiting the Evidence 36p.

Collier, P. (2007): The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Oxford University Press. – Journal of Peace Research 45(1): 121-122.

Connell, R.O. (1989): Of Arms and Men. – New York: Oxford University Press 384p.

Corrales, J., Kimmage, D., Kurlantzick, J., Link, P., Milani, A., Rahman, R. (2009): Undermining democracy 21st century authoritarians. – Freedom House 94p.

Cowen, M.P., Shenton, R.W. (1996): Doctrines of Development. – Routledge, New York 554p.

Desai, V., Potter, R.B. (2013): The companion to development studies. – Routledge, London 608p.

Frank, A.G. (1969): Latin America: Underdevelopment or Revolution. – Monthly Review Press, New York 436p.

Friedman, M. (1979): Interview excerpt from an interview with Phil Donahue: Milton Friedman-Greed. – Video Media: Youtube Official Portal. Retrieved from


Green, D. (2012): From poverty to power: How active citizens and effective states can change the world. – Practical Action Publishing 490p.

Igoe, M. (2019): How geopolitics shaped global development in 2019. – Devex Official Portal. Retrieved from:


Ikenberry, G.J. (2001): American power and the empire of capitalist democracy. – Review of International Studies 27(5): 191-212.

Jones, H. (2009): Equity in Development: Why it is Important and how to Achieve. – Overseas Development Institute 57p.

Kernell, S. (1976): The Truman Doctrine speech: A case study of the dynamics of presidential opinion leadership. – Social Science History 1(1): 20-44.

Kissinger, H. (2002): Does America Need a Foreign Policy? Toward a Diplomacy for the 21st Century. – Simon & Schuster 352p.

Li, T.M. (2007): The will to improve: Governmentality, development, and the practice of politics. – Duke University Press 392p.

Milanovic, B. (2012). Global income inequality by the numbers: in history and now-an overview. – Development Research Group, World Bank 30p.

Munck, R., O’Hearn, D. (1999): Critical Development Theory. – Zed Books Ltd. 10p.

O’Connor, K., Janenova, S., Knox, C. (2019): Open government in authoritarian regimes. – International Review of Public Policy 1(1: 1): 65-82.

Rushton, J.P. (1999): Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. – Population and Environment 21(1): 99-107.

Seligson, M.A., Passé-Smith, J.T., Seligson, M.A. (Eds.). (1998): Development and underdevelopment: The political economy of global inequality. – Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers 13p.

Sunkel, O. (1969): National development policy and external dependence in Latin America. – The Journal of Development Studies 6(1): 23-48.

Tran, M. (2010): Manuel Noriega–From US Friend to Foe. – The Guardian Official Portal. Retrieved from:


U.S. Department of State (2013): U.S. relations with Saudi Arabia. – U.S. Department of State Official Portal. Retrieved from:


Wallerstein, I. (1974): 1974The Modern World System. – New York Academic 440p.

Weede, E. (1996): Legitimacy, democracy, and comparative economic growth reconsidered. – European Sociological Review 12(3): 217-225.

Williamson, J. (1990): What Washington means by policy reformo Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? – Institute for lnternational Economics, Washington 15: 421-423.




How to Cite

ASHRAFUZZAMAN, M., & RAHMAN, M. S. (2022). A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM. Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(1), 26–36. https://doi.org/10.55197/qjssh.v3i1.121