• KAH CHOON NG Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • SUI CHAI YAP Center for Housing Study, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.
  • KIN MENG CHENG De Institute of Creative Arts and Design, USCI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.



Himalaya region, glacier mass balance, literature review, mapping, global warming


Mountain glaciers are susceptible to climate change. Most high-elevation glaciers, including the Himalayan glaciers, have been receding at an unprecedented rate in recent decades. Moreover, most mountain glaciers are found in the Himalayan areas, but field sampling and research efforts are limited due to logistical and financial constraints. From 1997 to 1999, just 6.8 km² of the 33,000 km² were examined in the Himalayan region. Previous studies indicated that Himalayan glaciers have been melting at an alarming rate over the past few decades. The objective of this paper is to review glacier changes, with an emphasis on mass balance changes in the Himalayan-Karakoram ranges, using 15 ISI journal articles published between 2008 and 2017. The acquired data on glacier mass balance was used to create a glacier mass balance change map for quantification using ArcGIS software and Landsat map as base map. The majority of the glaciers in the study area melted at various rates, with the most extensive glacier loss occurring in the west Himalayan highlands and the lowest occurring in the Karakoram region. Therefore, additional scientific research have to be conducted, and significant actions have to be taken at many different levels to prevent the continued loss of glaciers in this area.


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How to Cite

NG, K. C., YAP, S. C., & CHENG, K. M. (2022). ASSESSMENT OF GLACIER MASS BALANCE IN THE HIMALAYAN-KARAKORAM REGION. Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(3), 60–71.