NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY POLICIES IN MALAYSIA, EUROPEAN UNION AND UNITED STATES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Keywords:national nanotechnology policy, nanotechnology strategy, science and technology, Malaysia
Nanotechnology development policy embodied crucial strategies that directly influence the output of nanotechnology products and services. At present, Malaysia as a developing nation is still in the early stages of nanotechnology development compared to the European Union (EU) and the United States (US). Both are regarded as the pioneers and leaders in nanotechnology especially according to their research and development (R&D) initiatives, product innovations, and commercialisation policies. This study analyses the nanotechnology development policies adopted in Malaysia in accordance with the EU and the US. The comparison is made based on six aggregated planning strategies for nanotechnology development policy. The comparative analysis reveals the convergences and divergences between the nanotechnology development strategies embodied in Malaysia’s nanotechnology policies and the EU as well as the US. The strategies adopted by the EU and the US include the identification of strategic areas, identification of risks, and formulation of legal instruments. Notably, these three strategies are made silent and unperceived in Malaysia’s nanotechnology development policies. The analysis provides a useful insight for future directions on strengthening Malaysia’s nanotechnology development policies, paving the way to actively taking part in nanotechnology research and development as one of the global leaders.
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