THE ALTERATION OF DYNAMICS SECURITY THREATS IN PAKISTAN: A SURVEY
Keywords:sovereignty, sactarnizm, FDI, proxy war, global war, cold
Pakistan has also internal as well as external security threats. By means of internal threats are provincialism, sectarianism and etc. When Pakistan was created it was based on the two-nation theory but now there are more than two nations like Punjabis, Sindhi’s, Balochi and Pathans. Due to this reason, the people of Pakistan do not think as Pakistani but they divide them according to their provinces. And if the talk goes about sectarianism there are two groups of people who fight with each other on the name of their religion. Now the time goes about external security threats, there are many countries against Pakistan and trying their best to beat it down. For example, Pakistan has a main issue related to Kashmir. But it’s not only the direct relation with other country, it’s the threat to the security of neighbor country and its effect on the people like after 9/11 a war is start in Afghanistan and its hardly effect the Pakistani tribes and also the other country relation and their effect on Pakistan securityery main things are written here. All this need a network in which so many threats can cover-up regarding security.
Akbar, M. (2011): Pakistan’s foreign policy: Internal challenges in new millennium. – Berkeley Journal of Social Sciences 1(2): 1-11.
Alam, S. (2004): Iran‐Pakistan relations: Political and strategic dimensions. – Strategic Analysis 28(4): 526-545.
Alexander, Y., Hoenig, M.M. (2008): The new Iranian leadership: Ahmadinejad, terrorism, nuclear ambition, and the Middle East. – Praeger 360p.
Āmir Rānā, M., Ansari, S. (2006): A to Z of Jehadi Organizations in Pakistan. – Mashal 592p.
Farooq, M. (2014): Impact of terrorism on foreign direct investment and key indicators of development in Pakistan. – City University Research Journal 4(1): 53-68.
Ganguly, S., Kapur, S.P. (2010): The sorcerer's apprentice: Islamist militancy in South Asia. – The Washington Quarterly 33(1): 47-59.
Halliday, F. (2001): Iran and the Middle East: Foreign policy and domestic change. – Middle East Report 220: 42-47.
Hafeez, B. (2005): South Asia: Confronting Religious Extremism. – REGIONAL STUDIES-ISLAMABAD 23(3): 53p.
Hyman, A. (1990): Pakistan: Towards a Modern Muslim State? – Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism 34p.
Index, G.T. (2012): Capturing the Impact of Terrorism from 2002-2011. – Sydney: Institute for Economics and Peace 7p.
Institute for Economics and Peace (2014): Global peace index 2014: Measuring peace and assessing country risk. – Institute for Economics & Peace 110p.
Irina, K. (2008): Will India become a full-fledged participant in the Big Game in Central Asia? – Central Asia and the Caucasus 1(49): 57-69.
Jaffrelot, C. (Ed.)(2004): A History of Pakistan and its Origins. – Anthem Press 352p.
Jahan, R. (1994): Pakistan: Failure in national integration. – Columbia University Press 248p.
Jones, R.W. (2001): The Prospects for State Failure in Pakistan: Ethnic, Regional, and Sectarian Fissures. – Lawrence Liverore National Laboratory 1: 18p.
Joshi, P. (2016): The changing dynamics of the Iran-Pakistan-Afghanistan relationship. – South Asia@ LSE. Retrieved from:
Khalid, P.D.I., Kamal, M. (2020): The Homeland Security Initiatives for Pakistan: A Grand Strategy. – South Asian Studies 30(1): 15-36.
Khan, Z.A. (2020): Balochistan factor in Pak-Iran relations: Opportunities and constraints. – South Asian Studies 27(1): 121-140.
Khan, R.M. (2015): Foreign Policy of Pakistan in the Changing Regional and Global Settings. – Journal of Contemporary Studies 4(1): 14-30.
Khan, R.M. (2011): Afghanistan and Pakistan: Conflict, extremism, and resistance to modernity. – Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press 400p.
Khushi, Y. (2018): Pakistana s Internal and External Enemies. – Annals of Social Sciences & Management Studies 1(4): 73-82.
Mazhar, M.S., Goraya, N.S. (2019): External Challenges to Pakistan's National Security. – Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan 56(1): 117-135.
National University of Mode Language (2017): Internal and external security threats to Pakistan. – National University of Mode Language (NUML) 17p.
Pak, A., Farajzadeh, M. (2007): Iran's integrated coastal management plan: Persian Gulf, Oman Sea, and southern Caspian Sea coastlines. – Ocean & Coastal Management 50(9): 754-773.
Paul, T. V. (Ed.)(2005): The India-Pakistan conflict: an enduring rivalry. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 30: 291p.
Rabbani, M.I. (2003): Pakistan Affairs. – Caravan Book House 192p.
Rahman, S.U., Shurong, Z. (2017): Analysis of Chinese economic and national security interests in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) under the framework of One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative. – Arts and Social Sciences Journal 8(4): 1-7.
Schofield, V. (2021): Kashmir in conflict: India, Pakistan and the unending war. – Bloomsbury Publishing 336p.
Shah, M.N. (2014): Evolution of sectarianism in Pakistan: A threat to the state and society. – South Asian Studies 29(2): 441-459.
Shahbaz, M.A., Javed, A., Dar, A., Sattar, T. (2013): Impact of terrorism on foreign direct investment in Pakistan. – Archives of Business Research 1(1): 1-7.
Sial, S. (2011): Pak-Afghan Relations: Emerging Trends and Future Prospects. – Conflict and Peace Studies 4(1): 1-14.
Sills, D.L. (1968): Social Sciences. – International encyclopedia of social sciences 17: 9000p.
Teo, T. (2013): Encyclopedia of critical psychology. – Springer 61p.
Wirsing, R.G. (1999): Kashmir Dispute: An International Law Perspective. – Pacific Affairs 72(4): 595-596.
Zaidi, S.A. (2017): The promise of democracy. – Dawn. Retrieved from:
Zehra, N. (2003): Pakistan-Iran Relations: Compulsions and Conditions For a Strategic Relationship. – Strategic Studies 23(1): 76-89.
Ziring, L. (2019): Pakistan: the enigma of political development. – Routledge 298p.
Zimring, F.E., Laqueur, H. (2015): Kids, groups, and crime: In defense of conventional wisdom. – Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 52(3): 403-413.