RISK FACTORS OF GALLBLADDER STONE IN LADY READING HOSPITAL PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN
Keywords:gallbladder stones, cholelithiasis, risk factors, cirrhosis of the liver, menopause, obesity
Gallbladder stones are a prevalent and expensive cause of gastroenterological problems in the surgical units and OPD patients at the Lead Reading Hospital in Peshawar. Identifying the risk factors of gallstones is essential to reduce the economic burden and life-threatening complications associated with this condition. The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the major causes and risk factors of gallbladder stones disease, the association with age, and the frequency of gallbladder stones among male and female participants admitted in the surgical unit and radiology department of the hospital. A sample size of 220 participants was collected from a total population of 1000 people in the specified period of time. Data was collected from patients’ detailed history, signs, symptoms, and ultrasound reports over a six-month duration. After data collection and analysis, it was found that women had a twofold higher risk for cholelithiasis or gallstones compared to men. Age, body mass index, and high serum HDL cholesterol levels were independently associated with cholelithiasis in both men and women. In the male population, low alcohol and high coffee consumption were also associated with cholelithiasis. The major risk factors of gallbladder stones were obesity, increased BMI, age, diabetes mellitus, alcohol, smoking, HCV, cirrhosis of the liver, high cholesterol, infection, and cirrhosis in both genders, and menopause in females. The study identified that there were no unique causes or risk factors of gallbladder stones among the study of Asian versus western population.
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