• RUBY KHAN Department of System Biology and Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland.
  • BAKHT PARI College of Nursing, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan.




gallbladder stones, cholelithiasis, risk factors, cirrhosis of the liver, menopause, obesity


Gallbladder stones are a prevalent and expensive cause of gastroenterological problems in the surgical units and OPD patients at the Lead Reading Hospital in Peshawar. Identifying the risk factors of gallstones is essential to reduce the economic burden and life-threatening complications associated with this condition. The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the major causes and risk factors of gallbladder stones disease, the association with age, and the frequency of gallbladder stones among male and female participants admitted in the surgical unit and radiology department of the hospital. A sample size of 220 participants was collected from a total population of 1000 people in the specified period of time. Data was collected from patients’ detailed history, signs, symptoms, and ultrasound reports over a six-month duration. After data collection and analysis, it was found that women had a twofold higher risk for cholelithiasis or gallstones compared to men. Age, body mass index, and high serum HDL cholesterol levels were independently associated with cholelithiasis in both men and women. In the male population, low alcohol and high coffee consumption were also associated with cholelithiasis. The major risk factors of gallbladder stones were obesity, increased BMI, age, diabetes mellitus, alcohol, smoking, HCV, cirrhosis of the liver, high cholesterol, infection, and cirrhosis in both genders, and menopause in females. The study identified that there were no unique causes or risk factors of gallbladder stones among the study of Asian versus western population.


Abu Eshy, S.A., Mahfouz, A.A., Badr, A., El Gamal, M.N., Al Shehri, M.Y., Salati, M.I., Rabie, M.E. (2007): Prevalence and risk factors of gallstone disease in a high altitude Saudi population. – EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 13(4): 794-802.

Alishi, Y.A., Howaish, F.A., Alhamdan, F.A., Almalki, A.A., Alqahtani, S.A., Alharthi, S.A., Alanazi, A.S., Alsuroji, A.H.S. (2017): Prevalence and risk factors for gallstones among population in Riyadh City, KSA 2017. – The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine 69(5): 2384-2388.

Ansari-Moghaddam, A., Khorram, A., Miri-Bonjar, M., Mohammadi, M., Ansari, H. (2016): The prevalence and risk factors of gallstone among adults in South-East of Iran: A population-based study. – Global Journal of Health Science 8(4): 60-67.

Aslam, H.M., Saleem, S., Edhi, M.M., Shaikh, H.A., Hafiz, M., Saleem, M. (2013): Assessment of gallstone predictor: comparative analysis of ultrasonographic and biochemical parameters. – International Archives of Medicine 6(1): 1-7.

Atesok, K., Mabrey, J.D., Jazrawi, L.M., Egol, K.A. (2012): Surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training. – JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 20(7): 410-422.

Attili, A.F., De Santis, A., Attili, F., Roda, E., Festi, D., Carulli, N. (2005): Prevalence of gallstone disease in first-degree relatives of patients with cholelithiasis. – World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG 11(41): 6508-6511.

Barbara, L., Sama, C., Labate, A.M.M., Taroni, F., Rusticali, A.G., Festi, D., Sapio, C., Roda, E., Banterle, C., Puci, A., Formentini, F. (1987): A population study on the prevalence of gallstone disease: the Sirmione Study. – Hepatology 7(5): 913-917.

Bilal, M., Haseeb, A., Saad, M., Ahsan, M., Raza, M., Ahmed, A., Shahnawaz, W., Ahmed, B., Motiani, V. (2016): The prevalence and risk factors of gallstone among adults in Karachi, south Pakistan: A population-based study. – Glob J Health Sci 9(4): 106-114.

Channa, N.A. (2008): Gallstone disease: a review. – Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal 58(2): 197-208.

Chapman, B.A., Frampton, C.M., Wilson, I.R., Chisholm, R.J., Allan, R.B., Burt, M.J. (2000): Gallstone prevalence in Christchurch: risk factors and clinical significance. – New Zealand Medical Journal 113(1104): 46-48.

Cheon, Y.K., Lehman, G.A. (2006): Identification of risk factors for stone recurrence after endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones. – European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 18(5): 461-464.

Corli, O., Floriani, I., Roberto, A., Montanari, M., Galli, F., Greco, M.T., Caraceni, A., Kaasa, S., Dragani, T.A., Azzarello, G., Luzzani, M. (2016): Are strong opioids equally effective and safe in the treatment of chronic cancer pain? A multicenter randomized phase IV ‘real life’trial on the variability of response to opioids. – Annals of Oncology 27(6): 1107-1115.

Di Ciaula, A., Wang, D.Q., Portincasa, P. (2019): Cholesterol cholelithiasis: part of a systemic metabolic disease, prone to primary prevention. – Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 13(2): 157-171.

Diehl, A.K. (1991): Epidemiology and natural history of gallstone disease. – Gastroenterology Clinics of North America 20(1): 1-19.

Everhart, J.E., Yeh, F., Lee, E.T., Hill, M.C., Fabsitz, R., Howard, B.V., Welty, T.K. (2002): Prevalence of gallbladder disease in American Indian populations: findings from the Strong Heart Study. – Hepatology 35(6): 1507-1512.

Everhart, J.E., Khare, M., Hill, M., Maurer, K.R. (1999): Prevalence and ethnic differences in gallbladder disease in the United States. – Gastroenterology 117(3): 632-639.

Fernandes, N.F., Schwesinger, W.H., Hilsenbeck, S.G., Gross, G.W., Bay, M.K., Sirinek, K.R., Schenker, S. (2000): Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and cirrhosis: a case-control study of outcomes. – Liver Transplantation 6(3): 340-344.

Friedman, G.D., Kannel, W.B., Dawber, T.R. (1966): The epidemiology of gallbladder disease: observations in the Framingham Study. – Journal of Chronic Diseases 19(3): 273-292.

Grodstein, F., Colditz, G.A., Hunter, D.J., Manson, J.E., Willett, W.C., Stampfer, M.J. (1994): A prospective study of symptomatic gallstones in women: relation with oral contraceptives and other risk factors. – Obstetrics & Gynecology 84(2): 207-214.

Hayat, J.O., Loew, C.J., Asrress, K.N., McIntyre, A.S., Gorard, D.A. (2005): Contrasting liver function test patterns in obstructive jaundice due to biliary structures and stones. – QJM 98(1): 35-40.

Holzbach, R.T., Busch, N. (1991): Nucleation and growth of cholesterol crystals: kinetic determinants in supersaturated native bile. – Gastroenterology Clinics of North America 20(1): 67-84.

Horn, G. (1956): Observations on the aetiology of cholelithiasis. – British Medical Journal 2(4995): 732-737.

Hussain, A. (2011): Difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy: current evidence and strategies of management. – Surgical Laparoscopy Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques 21(4): 211-217.

Jafri, L., Abid, M.A., Asif, H., Hashmi, B., Majid, H., Ghani, F., Ahmed, S., Siddiqui, I., Khan, A.H. (2022): Development and validation of standard and real patient gallstone library using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. – BMC Gastroenterology 22(1): 1-8.

Jørgensen, T. (1988): Gallstones in a Danish population: familial occurrence and social factors. – Journal of Biosocial Science 20(1): 111-120.

Kim, D.H., Kim, H.S., Choi, C.W., Kim, E.K., Kim, B.I., Choi, J.H. (2011): Risk factors for pulmonary artery hypertension in preterm infants with moderate or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. – Neonatology 101(1): 40-46.

Koller, T., Kollerova, J., Hlavaty, T., Huorka, M., Payer, J. (2012): Cholelithiasis and markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with metabolic risk factors. – Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 47(2): 197-203.

Kono, S., Eguchi, H., Honjo, S., Todoroki, I., Oda, T., Shinchi, K., Ogawa, S., Nakagawa, K. (1940): Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and gallstone risk in Japanese men. – Digestion 65(3): 177-183.

Kurtin, W.E., Schwesinger, W.H., Diehl, A.K. (2000): Age-related changes in the chemical composition of gallstones. – International Journal of Surgical Investigation 2(4): 299-307.

Méndez-Sánchez, N., Chavez-Tapia, N.C., Motola-Kuba, D., Sanchez-Lara, K., Ponciano-Rodríguez, G., Baptista, H., Ramos, M.H., Uribe, M. (2005): Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for gallstone disease. – World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG 11(11): 1653-1657.

Mjåland, O., Adamsen, S., Hjelmquist, B., Ovaska, J., Buanes, T. (1998): Cholecystectomy rates, gallstone prevalence, and handling of bile duct injuries in Scandinavia: a comparative audit. – Surgical Endoscopy 12: 1386-1389.

Nasir, A., Zulfiqar, T., Ali, A., Zafar, H. (2021): Prevalence of Gallstone Disease and its Correlation with Age among People Undergoing Abdominal Ultrasound in Gujranwala. – EASJ Radiol Imaging Technol 3(3): 142-145.

Natique, K.R., Das, Y., Maxey, M.N., Sepulveda, P., Brown, L.S., Chalak, L.F. (2021): Early use of transcranial doppler ultrasonography to stratify neonatal encephalopathy. – Pediatric Neurology 124: 33-39.

Njeze, G.E. (2013): Gallstones. – Nigerian Journal of Surgery 19(2): 49-55.

Packer, M., McMurray, J.J., Desai, A.S., Gong, J., Lefkowitz, M.P., Rizkala, A.R., Rouleau, J.L., Shi, V.C., Solomon, S.D., Swedberg, K., Zile, M. (2015): Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibition compared with enalapril on the risk of clinical progression in surviving patients with heart failure. – Circulation 131(1): 54-61.

Pak, M., Lindseth, G. (2016): Risk factors for cholelithiasis. – Gastroenterology Nursing: The Official Journal of The Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates 39(4): 297-309.

Panpimanmas, S., Manmee, C. (2009): Risk factors for gallstone disease in a Thai population. – Journal of Epidemiology 19(3): 116-121.

Portincasa, P., Di Ciaula, A., Bonfrate, L., Wang, D.Q. (2012): Therapy of gallstone disease: What it was, what it is, what it will be. – World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics 3(2): 7-20.

Puig-Campmany, M., Blázquez-Andión, M., Mateo-Roca, M., Rizzi-Bordigoni, M., Piera-Salmerón, A., Ris-Romeu, J. (2020): Triage Tool for Screening Frail Patients in Emergency Department. – Advances in Geriatric Medicine and Research 2(3): 12p.

Reshetnyak, V.I. (2012): Concept of the pathogenesis and treatment of cholelithiasis. – World Journal of Hepatology 4(2): 18-34.

ROME GROUP FOR THE EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF CHOLELITHIASIS (GREPCPO) (1984): Prevalence of gallstone disease in an Italian adult female population. – American Journal of Epidemiology 119(5): 796-805.

Rosenberg, J., Leinskold, T. (2004): Dome down laparosonic cholecystectomy. – Scandinavian Journal of Surgery 93(1): 48-51.

Sachdeva, S., Khan, Z., Ansari, M.A., Khalique, N., Anees, A. (2011): Lifestyle and gallstone disease: scope for primary prevention. – Indian Journal of Community Medicine: Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine 36(4): 263-267.

Sampliner, R.E., Bennett, P.H., Comess, L.J., Rose, F.A., Burch, T.A. (1970): Gallbladder disease in Pima Indians: demonstration of high prevalence and early onset by cholecystography. – New England Journal of Medicine 283(25): 1358-1364.

Samra, Z.Q., Ikram, N., Parveen, R., Khan, A., Akhtar, M.J.J.P. (1988): Composition of gallstones of patients of Multan region. – J Pure and Applied Sciences 7(1): 1-9.

Shaffer, E.A. (2005): Epidemiology and risk factors for gallstone disease: has the paradigm changed in the 21st century? – Current Gastroenterology Reports 7(2): 132-140.

Sohail, M., Rakha, A., Butt, M.S., Iqbal, M.J., Rashid, S. (2017): Rice bran nutraceutics: A comprehensive review. – Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57(17): 3771-3780.

Sujatha, K., Shobarani, R., Ganesan, A., SaiKrishna, P., Shafiya, S. (2020): A Novel Image Based Method for Detection and Measurement of Gall Stones. – In Advances in Computing and Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of ICACM 2019, Springer Singapore 8p.

Taher, M.A. (2013): Descriptive study of cholelithiasis with chemical constituents’ analysis of gallstones from patients living in Baghdad, Iraq. – International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 5(1): 19-23.

Verma, S.L., Sharma, V.P., Tandon, P., Singh, G.P., Sachan, K. (2013): Comparison of esthetic outcome after extraction or non-extraction orthodontic treatment in class II division 1 malocclusion patients. – Contemporary Clinical Dentistry 4(2): 206-212.

Zahor, Z., Sternby, N.H., Kagan, A., Uemura, K., Vanecek, R., Vichert, A.M. (1974): Frequency of cholelithiasis in Prague and Malmö An autopsy study. – Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 9(1): 3-7.




How to Cite

KHAN, R., & PARI, B. (2023). RISK FACTORS OF GALLBLADDER STONE IN LADY READING HOSPITAL PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN. Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(5), 195–213. https://doi.org/10.55197/qjssh.v4i5.304