lepaking, code-mixing insertion, media language culture, englishization


This study scrutinized the current media language culture of code-mixing insertion practice of English morpheme (-ing) into Malay lexical item (lepak) by Malaysians on Facebook. A collection of 227 Facebook postings of the usage of ‘lepaking’, where base language of the online postings is Malay, from January to January 2020 to August 2020, were analyzed to investigate on the reasons of ‘lepaking’ instead of ‘hanging out’ utilized by Malaysians on Facebook. This study shadowed Muysken’s (2000) typology of code-mixing insertion which defines ‘the insertion a well-defined chunk of language B into a sentence or word that otherwise belongs to language A’ and further operationalized by using "socially-realistic linguistics” theory of Kachru, Halliday and Firthian is to identify the reasons why ‘lepaking’ in preference to ‘hanging out’. The finding acknowledged a new phenomenon of code-mixing insertion since the ‘chunk’ inserted was in a form of morpheme (-ing), not a complete word. The reasons of the use of ‘lepaking’ identified were: a) Role identification: social, registral, educational, (b) Style identification: the language trend and (c) The yearning to clarify and interpret: the speaker’s attitude and relationship with other persons and the vice versa. In conclusion, ‘lepaking’ is an identification of language fashion of ‘New Englishization’ and it emerges when co-relationship occurs between speaker, linguistic forms and language function.

Author Biographies

SHAMALA PARAMASIVAM, Universiti Putra Malaysia

Shamala Paramasivam, PhD, Associate Professor Dept of English, Universiti Putra Malaysia Research interests: Discourse Analysis, English for Specific Purposes, Language Learning, TESOL, Language & Culture

MD JAIS ISMAIL, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Md Jais Ismail, Dr,

UiTM Faculty of Music Shah Alam

research interest: Music, social sciences


Alam, S. (2006): Code-Mixing In Bangladesh: A Case Study Of Non-Government White-Collar Service Holders And Professionals. – Asian Affairs 28(4): 52-70.

Amichai-Hamburger, Y., Wainape, G., Fox, S. (2002): On the Internetno one knows I’m an introvert: Extroversion, neuroticism, and Internet interaction. – Cyber Psychology & Behavior 5(2): 125-128.

Auer, P. (1995): The pragmatics of code-switching: A sequential approach. – Cambridge University Press 20p.

Awang, S. (2004): Bahasa Rojak (Rojak Language). – PTS Media Group. Available on:

Azuma, S. (1998): Meaning and form in Code-switching. – In Jacobson, R. (ed). Code switching worldwide, Berlin/New York: Mounton de Gruyter 14p.

Bahiyah, A.H. (2003): English-Bahasa Melayu code alternation, code choice and gender in decision-making in committee meetings at an institution of higher learning. – Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 402p.

Bahiyah A.H., Basil S.W. (1998): English Grammar for Malaysian. – Bangi: Penerbit UKM 188p.

Bhatia, T.K., Ritchie, W.C. (2004): Social and Psychological Factors in Language Mixing. – Handbook of Bilingualism, Blackwell Publishing 14p.

Boeschoten, H. (1998): Code/switching, code/mixing, and code alternation: What a difference. – Berlin/New York: Mounton de Gruyter 9p.

Boyd, D. (2007): Social network sites: Public, private or what? – Knowledge Tree 7p.

Cárdenas-Claros, M.S., Isharyanti, N. (2009): Code switching and code mixing in internet chatting: between ‘yes’, ‘ya’, and ‘si’ a case study. – The JALT CALL Journal, Forums 5(3): 67-78.

Chen, K.H.Y. (2004): Linguistics. – University of Hong Kong 122p.

Chen, K.H.Y. (2005): The social distinctiveness of two code-switching styles in Hong Kong. English-Cantonese code mixing among senior secondary school students in Hong Kong. – ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, MA: Cascadilla Press 24p.

Clyne, M. (1991): Community languages: The Australian experience. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 308p.

Crystal, D. (2006): Language and the Internet. – 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 318p.

Crystal, D. (2001): Language and the Internet. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 318p.

Danet, B., Herring, S.C. (2003): The Multilingual Internet: Language, Culture, and Communication in Instant Messaging, Email and Chat. – Special issue of the Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. Available on:

Durham, M. (2003): Language choice on a Swiss mailing list. – Journal of computer mediated Communication 9(1). Available on:

Ellison, N.B., Steinfield, C., Lampe, C. (2007): The benefits of Facebook “friends”. Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. – Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 12(4): 1143-1168.

Firth, J. R. (1948): Sounds and prosodies. – Transactions of the Philological Society 25p.

Fishman, J. A. (2000): “The status agenda in corpus planning”. – Language Policy and Pedagogy 8p.

Gonzales, A.L., Hancock, J.T. (2010): Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: Effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem. – Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 14: 79-83.

Goldbarg, R.N. (2009): Spanish English code switching in Email communication. – Language Internet. Available on:

Guardian. (2010): Chatrooms and social websites encourage bad spelling, says study. – The Guardian Portal. Available on:,spell%20words%20incorrectly%2C%20research%20suggests.&text=More%20than%20one%20in%20five,a%20dictionary%20or%20spell%20checker

Halliday, M.A.K. (1975): Learning how to mean. – London: Edward Arnold 164p.

Heller, M. (1982): Language strategies and ethnic conflict in the workplace. – Manuscript, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Available on:,+M.+(1988):+Language+strategies+and+ethnic+conflict+in+the+workplace&source=bl&ots=UeHC986Lxa&sig=ACfU3U2zx24ZchSdZPEV2YaicWD7gkQcbA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiv4Put9ZPtAhVhzTgGHReuA1oQ6AEwAHoECAEQAg#v=onepage&q=Heller%2C%20M.%20(1988)%3A%20Language%20strategies%20and%20ethnic%20conflict%20in%20the%20workplace&f=false

Herring, S.C. (2000): Gender differences in CMC: Findings and implications. – Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility Journal. Available on:

Herring, S.C. (2001): Computer-mediated discourse. – Handbook of Discourse Analysis, Oxford: Blackwell 22p.

Hinrichs, L. (2006): Code-switching on the web. – English and Jamaican Creolein e-mail communication. Pragmaticdand beyond, Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company 317p.

Ho, J.W.Y. (2007): Code-mixing: Linguistic form and socio-cultural meaning. – The International Journal of Language Society and Culture 8p.

Ho, J.W.Y. (2006): Functional complementarity between two languages in ICQ. – International Journal of Bilingualism 10(4): 429-451.

Hoffman, C. (1991): An Introduction to Bilingualism. – London: Longman 353p.

Hsu, J.L. (2007): Englishization and language change in modern Chinese in Taiwan. – World Englishes 13(2): 167-184.

Huang, D. (2004): Code switching a language use in emails. – The University of Melbourne, Melbourne 32(2): 1-22.

Hymes, D. (1977): Foundations In Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach. – London: Longman 260p.

Jacobson, R. (1997a): Codeswitching Worldwide. – Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter 267p.

Jacobson, R. (1997b): In search of the deeper message: Codeswitching rationales of Mexican Americans and Malaysians. – Contributions to the Sociology of Language, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter 71:77-102.

Jalaluddin, N.H., Norsimah, M.A., Kesumawati, A.B. (2008): The mastery of English language among lower secondary school students in Malaysia: A linguistic analysis. – European Journal of Social Sciences 7(2): 106-119.

Jettka, D. (2010): The characterisation of synchronous chat in the continuum of spoken and written discourse. – University of Dublin 321p.

Kachru, B.B. (1974): ‘Socially realistic linguistics’: the Firthian tradition. – International Journal of the Sociology of Language 1981(31): 65-90.

Kamwangamalu, N. (1989): Code-mixing and Modernisation. – World Englishes 8(3): 321-332.

Kanthimathi, K. (2007): Mixing Mother Tongue and English: Exploring the Reasons and Functions of Code Mixing. – The Second Biennial International Conference on Teaching and Learning of English in Asia: Exploring New Frontiers (TELiA2) 12p.

Kajornboon A.B. (2013): The effect of using social networking assisted interaction between peer and teacher in English language learning. – Foreign Language Teaching and Learning Journal Third International Conference 2(1): 611-619.

Khaddage, F., Bray, E. (2011): Facebook as a dynamic educational tool in a mobile learning environment. – Proceedings of Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 7p.

Kim, E. (2006): Reasons and Motivations for Code-Mixing and Code-Switching. – Issues in EFL 4(1): 43-61.

Kim, L.S. (2008): Masking: Maneuvers of Skilled ESL Speakers in Postcolonial Societies. – English in South East Asia: Prospects, Perspectives and Possibilities, Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press 2(3): 137-158.

Kusumawati, R. (2015): Code Mixing in Celeb Pages Found on Gadis and Go Girl! Magazine. – IAIN Surakarta: English Letters Deparment 69p.

Helmi, L.C. (2011): Globalization/Englishization: our threaten linguistics diversity in a new Linguistic World Order. – International Conference on Linguistics, Literature and Translation - Held at Irbid National University, Jordan. Available on:

Ludi, G. (2003): Code-switching and unbalanced bilingualism. In Bilingualism: Beyond Basic Principles. – Clevedon: Multilingual Matters 15p.

Luke, K.K. (1998): Why two languages might be better than one: Motivations of language mixing In Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press 14p.

Maschler, Y. (1998): On the transition from code-switching to a mixed code. – London: Routledge 24p.

Maybin, J. (1994): Teaching writing: Process or genre. – London: Routledge 8p.

McConvell, P. (1994): Oral proficiency assessment for Aboriginal languages. – Alice Springs, Australia: IAD Press 14p.

McLellan, J. (2009): When two grammars coincide: Malay-English code-switching in public online discussion forum texts. – International Sociological Association RC25 Newsletter 22p.

Md Jais, I., Loo, F.C., Azu Farhana, A., Rorlinda, Y. (2020): Institutionalising the kompang for primary school students in Malaysia. – International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change 13(5): 275-292.

Md Jais, I., Azu, F.A. (2020): The significance of music to gifted students. – Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 1(4): 33-43.

Muthusamy, P. (2009): Communicative functions and reasons for code switching: A Malaysian perspective. – Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. Available on:

Muysken, P. (2000): Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing. – United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press 306p.

Myers-Scotton, C. (1992): Comparing code switching and borrowing. – Exeter, UK: Multilingual matters Ltd 22p.

Myers-Scotton, C. (1993): Duelling languages: Grammatical structure in code-switching. – The United States: Oxford University Press 304p.

Norizah, H., Azirah, H. (2009): Electronic English in Malaysiam: features and language in use. – English Today 25(4): 39-46.

Paolillo, J.C. (1999): The virtual speech community: Social network and language variation on IRC. – Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences 10p.

Prentice, D.J. (1987): Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian). – New York: Oxford University Press 22p.

Sneddon, J.N. (1996): Indonesian: A comprehensive grammar. – New York: Routledge 387p.

Subrahmanyam, K., Greenfield, P.M. (2008): Social networking on the Internet: Developmental implications. – Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 29(6): 415-474.

Swain, M. (1972): Bilingualism as a First Language. – University of California: Irvine 27p.

Tay, M.W.J. (2007): Code switching and code mixing as a communicative strategy in multilingual discourse. – World Englishes 8(3): 407-417.

Trudgill, P. (2002): Sociolinguistic Variation and Change. – Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 208p.

Ure, J. (1974): Introduction: Approaches to the study of register range. – International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 1982(35): 5-24.

Wei, L. (1998): The ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions in the analysis of conversational code switching. – London, UK: Routledge 20p.

Widdowson, H.G. (1994): The Ownership of English. – TESOL Quarterly 28(2): 377-389.

Wittkower, D.E. (2010): Facebook and philosophy: What's on your mind? – Open Court 288p.

Zephoria Digital Marketing (2019): The top 20 valuable Facebook statistics. – Zephoria Digital Marketing Official Portal. Available on:




How to Cite

ANUAR, A. F., PARAMASIVAM, S., & ISMAIL, M. J. (2020). MALAY-ENGLISH CODE-MIXING INSERTION: WHY ‘LEPAKING’ IN PREFERENCE TO ‘HANGING OUT’?. Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(5), 69–84. Retrieved from