• MOHD HASFARISHAM ABD HALIM Pusat Penyelidikan Arkeologi Global, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
  • MOHD MOKHTAR SAIDIN Pusat Penyelidikan Arkeologi Global, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.



architecture, reconstruction, oldest in Southeast Asia, ancient port


Archaeological research of early civilizations has proven that trade activities using the sea route took place much earlier than the first century AD. The evidence was obtained through archaeological research of the ancient port which is still dated to be used since the 31st Century BCE in Niuserre (Abu Gurab), West Asia, the 26th Century BCE in Dholavira, India, 18th Century BCE at Phalasarna in Europe and the 16th Century BCE in Honduras, Mesoamerica. However, this discussion only discusses the evidence of the ancient port dated at least since the sixth Century BCE for the early civilizations that have a contemporary dating with the discovery of the SB2D port structure in the Sungai Batu Complex, Lembah Bujang, Kedah.


Bahar, Y.H., Amri, F. (2009): Peninggalan Maritim Pantai Sumatera Barat. – Dalam Amogahapasa: Sumber Daya Arkheologi Maritim di Perairan Sumatera Barat, Buletin Arkeologi 13: 27-38.

Dogu, D., Kose, C., Nami Kartal, S., Erdin, N. (2011): Wood Identification of Wooden Marine Piles from The Ancient Byzantine Port Of Eleutherius/Theodosius. – Bioresources 6(2): 987-1018.

D'Urso, I., Ombrelli, M., Telaroli, P., Calesso, W., Badin, C., Senigaglia, M., Urrutia, C., Sterponi, L. (2015): a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Coastal Protection of Two Archaeological Sites in Lybia. – The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences 40(5): 109-116.

Garnsey, P., Hopkin, K., Whittaker, C.R. (1983). Trade In The Ancient Economy. – University Of California Press 230p.

Gaur, A.S., Sundaresh, ManiMurali, R. (2019): Looking for the Harappan Ports around Dholavira, Khadir Bet, Kachchh, Gujarat. – Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 48(11): 1769-1773.

Graauw, A. (2019a): Ancient Port Structures An engineer’s perspective. – PortusLimen Conference, Rome 35p.

Graauw, A. (2019b): Remains of Ancient Breakwaters. – Ancient Ports & Harbours 61p.

Graauw, A. (2017): Ancient Coastal settlements, Ports and Harbours. – Ancient Port Structures 3: 342p.

Hadjidaki, E. (2001): The Roman Destruction of Phalasarna'. – BAR International Series 940: 155-166.

Hadjidaki, E. (1988): Preliminary report of excavations at the harbour of phalasarna In West Crete. – American Journal Of Archaeology 92(4): 463-479.

Halim, M.H.A. (2019): Sumbangan Kajian Di Tapak SB1Y, SB2G, SB2J dan SB2ZZ, Kepada Bukti Seni Bina Pelabuhan Di Kompleks Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah. – Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 55p.

Halim, M.H.A. (2014): Ekskavasi Tapak Senibina Jeti SB2E, SB1H, SB1J, SB1K dan SB1L, Di Kompleks Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah. – Universiti Sains Malaysia 429p.

McKillop, H.I. (2005): In search of Maya sea traders (No. 11). – Texas A&M University Press 248p.

McKillop, H., Magnoni, A., Watson, R., Ascher, S., Winemiller, T., Tucker, B. (2004): The Coral Foundations of Coastal Maya Architecture. – In Archaeological Investigations in the Eastern Lowlands: Papers of the 2003 Belize Archaeology Symposium 12p.

McKillop, H.I. (2004a): The Classic Maya trading port of Moho Cay. – The Ancient Maya of the Belize Valley: Half A Century of Archaeological Research, University Press of Florida, Gainesville 15p.

McKillop, H.I. (2004b): The ancient Maya: new perspectives. – Abc-clio 453p.

Morhange, C. (2014): Ports antiques et variations relatives du niveau marin. – Géochronique 130: 21-24.

Olesen, J.P. (2007): The Technology of Roman Harbours. – International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 17(2): 147-157.

Repousis, E., Ziros, A.G., Chondros, M.K. dan Memos, C.D. (2015): Efficent Sediment Management at the Entrance of an Ancient Harbour. – E-Proceedings of the 36th IAHR, World Congress 10p.

Saidin, M., Abdullah, J., Osman, J., Abdullah, A. (2011): Issues and problem of previous study in Bujang Valley and discovery of Sungai Batu. – In: Chia, S., Andaya, B. (Eds.), Bujang Valley and Early Civilization in Southeast Asia, USM Penang 21p.

Seshan, R. (2019): The Port City of Chaul. – Journal of Indian Ocean World Studies 3: 38-52.

Shuey, E.B. (1981): Underwater Survey and Excavation at Gravisca, the port of Tarquinia. – Papers of the British School at Rome 49: 29p.

Shuey, E.B. (1978): Underwater Survey and Excavation at the Ancient Port of Gravisca, Italy. – Texas A&M University 142p.

Sichan, D. (2011): Harbours in ancient Egypt. – Charles University 138p.

Thomas, R., Villing, A., Pennington, B., Strutt, K., Masson, A., Lindenlauf, A. (2014): The Harbour of Naukratis, Mistress of Ship, The British Museum Naukratis Project’s fifth fieldwork season at Kom Ge’if, Egypt. – British Museum Naukratis Project Feildwork Report 14p.

Tripati, S., Murali, R.M., Seelam, J.K., Pradhan, A.K., Behera, R.P., Choudhury, R. (2015): Khalkattapatna port: the lost archaeological heritage of Odisha, east coast of India. – Current Science 109(2): 372-377.

Tripati, S. (2009): Coastal structural remains on the east coast of India: Evidence of maritime activities and their significance. – Sharada Publishing House 9p.

York, R.A. (2017): The Harbour At Ptolemais: Hellenistic City Of The Libyan Pentapolis. – The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 46(1): 48-71.

Zakaria, I.I. (2014): Kajian arkeologi di tapak jeti SB2B dan SB2D, kompleks Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang. – Universiti Sains Malaysia 248p.




How to Cite

ABD HALIM, M. H., & SAIDIN, M. M. (2021). THE ARCHITECTURAL OF ANCIENT PORT IN SIXTH CENTURY BCE EARLY WORLD CIVILIZATION. Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(4), 87–98.