BILINGUALISM AND CULTURAL IDENTITY: EXPLORING TEACHER AND STUDENTS’ USE OF CODE-SWITCHING IN CULTURAL EXPRESSIONS
Keywords:code-switching, ethnography, bilingual code, cultural identities
This qualitative research was conducted to investigate how the teacher and students’ cultural identities are discursively constructed and revealed by code-switching in an English language classroom. It made use of the critical ethnographic approach to studying language use guided by Fairclough’s (1992) Critical Discourse Analysis. The findings of the study revealed that both the teacher and students utilized code-switching during class interactions not only to express their linguistic backgrounds but their cultural identities as well. Transcripts of the class discussion also revealed that the teacher and students’ use of code-switching during class interactions was related to relevance of the topic discussed or question asked, familiarity of context presented, and one’s perceived attachment to a particular cultural group. Furthermore, emotion, context, and group membership were the factors that strongly influenced the teacher and students to use code-switching in the expression of their cultural identities during the class interactions.
Alfonzetti, G. (1998): The conversational dimension in code-switching between Italian and dialect in Sicily. – Routledge, London 34p.
Alvarez-Cáccamo, C. (1990): Rethinking conversational code-switching: codes, speech varieties, and contextualization. – Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 16(1): 3-16.
Angermeyer, P.S. (2005): Spelling bilingualism: Script choice in Russian American classified ads and signage. – Language in Society 34(4): 493-531.
Aslanov, C. (2000): Interpreting the language-mixing in terms of codeswitching: the case of the Franco-Italian interface in the Middle Ages. – Journal of Pragmatics 32: 1273-81.
Auer, P. (1995): The pragmatics of code-switching: A sequential approach. – Cambridge University Press, New York 20p.
Azuma, S. (1997): Lexical categories and code-switching: a study of Japanese/English code-switching in Japan. – The Journal of the Association of Teachers of Japanese 31(2): 1-24.
Backus, A. (1992): Patterns of language mixing: A study in Turkish-Dutch bilingualism. – Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 11: 119p.
Bader, Y., Minnis, D.D. (2000): Morphological and syntactic code-switching in the speech of an Arabic-English bilingual child. – Multilingua 19(4): 383-403.
Dabène, L., Moore, D. (1995): Bilingual speech of migrant people. – One speaker, two languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on code-switching, Cambridge University Press 365p.
Dewaele, J.M. (2004): Blistering barnacles! What language do multilinguals swear in?! – Estudios de Sociolinguistica 5(1): 83-105.
Fairclough, N. (1995): Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. – London, UK: Longman 608p.
Gardner-Chloros, P. (2009): Code-switching. – New York: Cambridge University Press 421p.
Garrett, P.B. (2007): Language socialization and the (re)production of bilingual subjectivities. In Bilingualism: A Social Approach, New York: Palgrave 23p.
Grosjean, F. (2001): The bilingual's language modes. – One mind, two languages bilingual language processing, Oxford Blackwell 236p.
Grosjean, F. (1995): A psycholinguistic approach to code-switching: The recondition of guest words by bilinguals. – One speaker, two languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on code-switching, Cambridge University Press 365p.
Fishman, J.A. (1989): Language and ethnicity in minority sociolinguistic perspective. Multilingual matters, 45. – Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters 728p.
Hanks, W. (1996): Language and communicative practices. – Boulder & Oxford: Westview Press 335p.
Heller, M. (2007): Bilingualism: A social approach. – New York: Palgrave Macmillan 361p.
Heller, M. (1992): The politics of codeswitching and language choice. – Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13(1-2): 123-142.
Li, W. (2000): The bilingual reader. – London: Routledge 24(3): 541p.
Li, W., Milroy, L., Ching, P.S. (2000): A two-step sociolinguistic analysis of code-switching and language choice: The example of a bilingual Chinese community in Britain. – International Journal of Applied Linguistics 188-209p.
May, S. (1997): Critical ethnography. – Research Methods in Language and Education 197-206p.
Milroy, J. (2001): Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization. – Journal of sociolinguistics 5(4): 530-555.
Milroy, L., Muysken, P. (1995): One speaker, two languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on code-switching. – New York, NY: Cambridge University Press 380p.
Moreno, E.M., Federmeier, K.D., Kutas, M. (2002): Switching languages, switching palabras (words): An electrophysiological study of code switching. – Brain and Language 80(2): 188-207.
Myers-Scotton, C. (1993): Social motivations for codeswitching: Evidence from Africa. – Oxford: Clarendon Press 192p.
Pavlenko, A. (2005): Emotions and multilingualism. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 304p.
Pavlenko, A. (2004): Negotiation of Identities in Multilingual Contexts. – Multilingual Matters 360p.
Poplack, S. (1979): Sobre la elisión y la ambigüedad en el español puertorriqueño: El caso de la (n) verball. – Boletín de la Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española 7(2): 129-143.
Rampton, B. (2001): Language crossing, cross-talk, and cross-disciplinarity in sociolinguistics. – Sociolinguistics and social theory, England: Pearson Education 261-298pp.
Romaine, S. (1995): Bilingualism. – 2nd edition, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing 402p.
Sapir, E. (1923): A type of Athabaskan relative. – The collected works of Edward Sapir, Berlin: De Gruyter 6: 143-149.
Silverstein, M., Urban, G. (1996): Natural histories of discourse. – Chicago: University of Chicago Press 362.