reverse logistics, Pharmaceutical, medical services, product recall, waste management


As in many other developing countries, the generation of pharmaceutical wastes in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few years. Pharmaceutical wastes are the unwanted materials which can no longer be used in the manufacturing processes that can eventually be harmful to the living beings in the ecosystem. Even though the severe impact of pharmaceutical wastes is significant, however only minor attention is given to the pharmaceutical reverse logistics. Hence, this study seeks to investigate the associated factors which affect the implementation of pharmaceutical reverse logistics in Malaysia. The data are collected using questionnaire that contains both closed- ended and multiple-choice questions. Questionnaires are administered to respondents from medical service centres sampled on a convenience basis. A total of 400 samples were collected, and the data are analysed using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Linear Regression. Overall, the Cronbach’s Alpha score was 0.880 . As a result, the findings indicated that all of the independent variables such as costs, personnel, lack of coordination and government have a significant relationship with the implementation of pharmaceutical reverse logistics. Lastly, the outcomes of this study are expected to help the medical service centre to improve the handling and disposal of pharmaceutical wastes in an effective, efficient and environmental friendly way.


Agrawal, S., Singh, R.K., Murtaza, Q. (2016): Prioritizing critical success factors for reverse logistics implementation using fuzzy - TOPSIS methodology. – Journal of Industrial Engineering International 12(1): 15-27.

Álvarez-Gil, M.J., Berrone, P., Husillos, F.J., Lado, N. (2007): Reverse logistics, stakeholders' influence, organizational slack, and managers' posture. – Journal of Business Research 60(5): 463-473.

Ambali, A.R., Bakar, A.N., Merican, F.M. (2013): Environmental Policy In Malaysia: Biomedical Waste, Strategies And Issues. – Journal of Administrative Science 10(1): 1-17.

Bhavin, K. (2010): Reverse logistics in pharmaceutical industry. – PALMS Official Portal. Available on:

Carter, C.R., Ellram, L.M. (1998): Reverse logistics: A review of the literature and framework for future investigation. – Journal of Business Logistics 19(1): 85-102.

Chirwa, D.C. (2015): The Impact of Reverse Logistics In Public Hospitals; A Case Of Kamuzu Central Hospital And Ntchisi District Hospital. – Boston: The University of Boston 54p.

Ghafar, S.W. (2017): Food Waste in Malaysia: Trends, Current Practices and Key Challenge. – FFTC Agricultural Policy PLatform. Available on:

Grenadier, S.R. (2002): Option exercise games: An application to the equilibrium investment strategies of firms. – The Review of Financial Studies 15(3): 691-721.

Guide, V.D., Wassenhove, V. (2002): The reserve supply chain. – Harvard Business Review. Available on:

Jayaraman, Y.V., Luo, Y. (2016): Creating Competitive Advantages Through New. – Academy of Management Perspectives 21(2): 56-69.

Kabir, M.I. (2013): Reverse Logistics in Pharmaceutical Industry. – International Journal of Supply Chain Management 2(1): 97p.

Luken, R., Rompaey, F.V. (2008): Drivers for and barriers to environmentally sound technology adoption by manufacturing plants in nine developing countries. – Journal of Cleaner Production 16(1): 67-77.

Mogaka, L.M. (2015): The Influence of Reverse Logistics Practices of Returned New Products on Performance of Pharmaceutical Firms in Nairobi City County, Kenya. – Nairobi: University of Nairobi 56p.

Ravi, V., Shankar, R. (2004): Analysis of interactions among the barriers of reverse logistics. – Technological Forecasting & Social Change 72(8): 1011-1029.

Rogers, D.S., Tibben-Lembke, R.S. (1998): Going backwards: Reverse logistics trends and practices. – University of Nevada, Reno: Reverse Logistics Executive Council 280p.

Shaharudina, M.R., Zailani, S., Tan, K.C. (2013): Barriers to Product Returns and Recovery Management in a Developing Country: Investigation using Multiple Methods. – Journal of Cleaner Production 96: 220-232.

Tan, A., Hosie, P. (2010): Reverse Logistics Operations in Singapore to Support Asia Pacific Regions. – International Journal of Electronic Customer Relationship Management 4(2): 196-208.

Tompkins, J. (2010): Reverse logistics in the pharmaceutical industry is so important. – Industry Week Official Portal. Available on:

World Health Organization (2010): Growing threat from counterfeit medicines. – Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Available on:




How to Cite

ZAINUDDIN, N., DERAMAN, N., CHAN, K. Y., THAM, C. W., & TOH, J. Q. (2020). PHARMACEUTICAL REVERSE LOGISTICS IMPLEMENTATION IN NORTHERN MALAYSIA. Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(5), 123–130. Retrieved from