THE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF INDIA: AN OVERVIEW
Keywords:physiography, geography, India, landforms, national development
Physiography is a field of geography that studies the physical patterns and processes of the Earth, such as geomorphology, hydrology, soil, rocks, biogeography, and the effects of tectonic forces on landscapes. This paper aimed to discuss the physiographic characteristics of India due to its diverse geographical features by using a systematic search and collection of publications and secondary data. The characteristics of India's physiography were discussed descriptively and visually. This study highlights the fundamental physiographic divisions, sub-divisions, and socioeconomic functions of each type of terrain in India, including the northern mountain range, northern plains, peninsular plateau, coastal plains, and islands (the eastern and western coastal plains, Andaman and Nicobar islands). This overview concluded that the physiography of India is complex, heterogeneous and could be categorized into four divisions with distinct characteristics. In detail, the Himalayan Range is a mountainous region in the northern part of the country which produced by the fold mountain processes. Meanwhile, the Indo-Gangetic Plain was well recognised for its extensive agricultural activities contributed by the Ganges River. India's diverse landforms had a profound impact on the country's cultural and economical development. On the other hand, this study also demonstrated that the plateau region in the country's southern and central regions was geographically diversified. The different landscapes of India influenced the socioeconomic characteristics of the Indian society and consequently supported national development of India.
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