• JITEN KUMAR MISHRA Faculty of Commerce & Management, Jagan Nath University, Haryana, India.


organizational justice, distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice, workplace fairness


This is a pioneering study in India. The study investigated the employee perception of fairness as a total concept at the workplaces of a multiple public and private organizations of Delhi national capital region, selected by convenience sampling method. The employee perception of fairness or the organizational justice scenario was studied and compared in public and private sector organizations. The study used two methods to determine the sample size: Krejcie and Morgan’s sample size selection table and Cochran’s formula for sample size calculation. Some 400 mid-managerial level employees from both public and private sectors participated in the study. In addition to 8 questions on demographic factors, the structured survey questionnaire of 20 questions a renowned scholar of justice studies was administered to collect the data from the respondents. To ensure reliability of the data for analysis, Cronbach alpha value was calculated of the individual items on the questionnaire and the scores were above the tolerance level. The data analysis was done on SPSS 25.0 version. The analysis found positive employee perception of fairness in both the sectors. The result found was inconsistent with our hypothesis of negative perception keeping the grim scenario of the workplaces in view. The inconsistent result led to some new insights emerging from the study. The researcher observed job insecurity, pessimism, and high discreet behaviour of the respondents particularly in the private sector. In public sector, the respondents were noticed to be indifferent and there was no consensus in their views.


Adams, J.S. (1963): Toward an understanding of inequity. – Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67(5): 422-436.

Bies, R.J., Moag, J.F. (1986): Interactional Justice: Communication Criteria of Fairness. – In: Lewicki, R.J., Sheppard, B.H. and Bazerman, M.H., Eds., Research on Negotiations in Organizations, JAI Press, Greenwich 1: 43-55.

Byrne, Z.S., Cropanzano, R. (2001): The history of organizational justice: The founders speak. – Justice in the Workplace: From Theory to Practice 2(1): 3-26.

Cochran, W.G. (1963): Sampling Techniques. – New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 413p.

Cohen-Charash, Y., Spector, P.E. (2001): The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. – Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes 86(2): 278-324.

Colquitt, J.A. (2008): Two decades of organizational justice: Findings, controversies, and future directions. – The Sage Handbook of Organizational Behavior 1: 73-88.

Colquitt, J.A., Greenberg, J., Zapata-Phelan, C.P. (2005): What is organizational justice? A historical overview. – In J. Greenberg & J. A. Colquitt (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Justice, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers 56p.

Colquitt, J.A. (2001): On the Dimensionality of Organizational Justice: A Construct Validation of a Measure. – Journal of Applied Psychology 86(3): 386-400.

Colquitt, J.A., Conlon, D.E., Wesson, M.J., Porter, C.O., Ng, K.Y. (2001): Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. – Journal of Applied Psychology 86(3): 425-445.

Cropanzano, R., Stein, J.H. (2009): Organizational justice and behavioural ethics: Promises and prospects. – Business Ethics Quarterly 19(2): 193-233.

Deutsch, M. (1975): Equity, Equality, and Need: What determines which Value will be used as the Basis of Distributive Justice? – Journal of Social Issues 31(3): 137- 150.

Fortin, M. (2008): Perspectives on Organizational Justice: concept clarification, social context integration, time and links with morality. – International Journal of Management Reviews 10(2): 93-126.

Greenberg, J. (1993): The social side of fairness: Interpersonal and informational classes of organizational justice. – In R. Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the workplace: Approaching fairness in human resource management, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 24p.

Greenberg, J. (1987): A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. – Academy of Management Review 12(1): 9-22.

Heffernan, M. (2012): Employee Reactions to High Performance Work Systems in the

Service Sector: Assessing the Role of Organisational Justice Theory. – National University of Ireland, Galway 361p.

Iqbal, H.K., Aziz, U., Tasawar, A. (2012): Impact of Organizational Justice on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: An Empirical Evidence from Pakistan. – World Applied Sciences Journal 19(9): 1348-1354.

Krejcie, R.V., Morgan, D.W. (1970): Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. – Educational and Psychological Measurement 30(3): 607-610.

Kumari, N., Afroz, N. (2013): The impact of organizational justice on organizational commitment and creative behaviour among thermal power Industrial employees. – Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) 16(6): 1-6.

Leventhal, G.S., Karuza, J., Fry, W.R. (1980): Beyond fairness: A theory of allocation preferences. – Justice and Social Interaction 3(1): 167-218.

Leventhal, G.S. (1976): Fairness in Social Relationships. – General Learning Press 29p.

Lind, E.A., Tyler, T.R. (1988): The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. – Springer Science & Business Media 340p.

Miller, D.T. (2001): Disrespect and the experience of injustice. – Annual Review of Psychology 52(1): 527-553.

Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P., MacCurtain, S., Gupta, A., Kulkarni, S. (2012): Role of organizational justice perceptions in India and Ireland: An empirical examination. – IIM Bangalore Research Paper 12p.

Saha, P., Verick, S. (2016): State of rural labour markets in India. – ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series 52p.

Sohn, Y.W., Shin, J. (2015): effects of employees' social comparison behaviors on distributive justice perception and job satisfaction. – Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 43(7): 1071- 1083.

Spriha, M., Abha, S., Sakshi, M. (2016): Organizational justice in relation to competence, commitment and self-motivation. – The International Journal of Indian Psychology 3(2): 1-27.

Srija, A., Shirke, S.V. (2012): An Analysis of Informal Labour Market in India (Special Feature). – New Delhi: Confederation of Indian Industry 7p.

Whiteside, D.B., Barclay, L.J. (2016): The face of fairness: Self-awareness as a means to promote fairness among managers with low empathy. – Journal of Business Ethics 137(4): 721-730.

Whiteside, D.B. (2015): Promoting Fairness in the Workplace: Identifying and Overcoming the Barriers to Managerial Fairness in Organizations. – Wilfrid Laurier University 175p.

Yadav, R. (2016): Antecedents and Consequences of Organisational Justice. – Management Insight 12(2): 66-77.




How to Cite

MISHRA, J. K. (2021). UNDERSTANDING EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION OF FAIRNESS AT WORKPLACE: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY. Quantum Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(5), 75–85. Retrieved from https://qjssh.com/index.php/qjssh/article/view/99